اخبار و مقالات

بهمن 3, 1398

effectiveness of Hana game application

Study on effectiveness of Hana game application on cognitive problem solving skill, attention and academic achievement linguistics and mathematics on first grade student

Zeinab Sadat Jahromi Sarvehana Psychological Research Institute

Abstract

The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hana game app on cognitive problem-solving skill, attention, and academic achievement in linguistics and mathematics in the first grade students. The present study was a quasi-experimental study. The statistical population consisted of all first grade elementary school students in district 3 of Tehran. The statistical sample of the study consisted of 30 students including 15 experiment group and 15 control group who were selected by simple random sampling. A researcher-made questionnaire including 31 items was used to assess cognitive problem-solving skill and attention. In order to measure linguistics and Math academic achievement, two four-choice Farsi and Math exams, each containing 20 items, were used. Data analysis was performed using multivariate analysis of covariance. Based on the findings, the Hana game application effect on cognitive Problem Solving skill, attention, academic achievement in linguistics and Mathematics, in first grade elementary students was significant at P≤ 0.01 level.

Keywords: Hana Game Application, Cognitive Problem Solving skill, Attention, linguistics Academic Achievement, Mathematical Academic Achievement

Introduction

Studying and acquiring cognitive skills today is one of the most urgent needs of every human. Cognitive skills help a student achieve a specific goal [1]. One of the most important cognitive skills for students is problem solving skills. Problem solving is a cognitive-behavioral process that one uses to identify and discover adaptive solutions in order to deal with the problems of daily living [2].

The ability to successfully solve problems in real life is an essential life skill [3]. Throughout history, psychologists and philosophers have argued that an essential part of human existence is the ability to solve problems. Problem solving ability significantly contributes to social competence and psychological well-being in general and enhances self-esteem and is associated with good personal well-being. Man is constantly confronted with situations that must be resolved in order to maintain a compromised level of performance. Lack of proper problem-solving skills is associated with a number of emotional and behavioral problems in adulthood [4]. Cassidy and Elang (1996) define problem solving as a cognitive-behavioral process whereby individuals identify and propose effective strategies to deal with problematic situations in daily life. These researchers have proposed a multi-dimensional pattern of problem-solving styles that include six dimensions of helplessness, inhibition, trust, creativity, avoidance, and tendency [5]. Therefore, problem solving involves a set of efforts to eliminate problems and achieve a goal [6]. In addition, in the problem solving process, students learn to deal with their problems in such a way that they do not become anxious and deal with potential failures [7].

It should be noted that in the process of problem solving training, the goal is not to find a specific solution to a particular problem, but rather to seek a principle or law that is obtained and generalizable to other situations through problem solving [2].

Meltzer (2007), McCloskey, and Dioner (2009) stated that attention is one of the abilities that children in the future need to learn in school [4]. Attention is also one of the most effective talents in problem solving and one of the best activities of the mind [8]. Attention, regulates, and prioritizes the stimuli processed by the central nervous system and is important for cognitive functioning, mind and behavior, because even minor neglect affects learning and academic progress [4].

Alongside problem solving and attention, one of the main concerns of educational systems is the academic achievement of students, especially in linguistics and mathematics. game-based learning is one of the techniques that can help facilitate and improve the implementation of the learning processes. The use of games in education is a growing trend. The motivational and engaging characteristics of educational games have been widely considered in educational games literature [9].

Vigotsky believes that through play, formal education and even work, the child can be brought to potential developmental level, helping him / her solve problems and attention, and thus help him / her to improve his / her academic performance [7].

It should be noted that the past decade has seen the rapid development of information technologies along with the rapid development of educational games. With the increasing use of technology-assisted education, there is a need to examine the impact of application-based games. An increasing number of studies on application-based games are also emerging. In this respect, it is essential to pay attention to the effectiveness of these types of games that are based on applications, since educational applications are designed for learning and training purposes [10, 11 and 12].

Among the common approaches, paying attention to educational software and applications is growing rapidly and with the rapid movement of the world in information technology and digital media, the role of information and communication technology in education is becoming increasingly important [13]. Teaching and learning software and applications have greatly influenced traditional education and created a new world of learning [14]. Game apps are an important element in learning development and are recognized as the most interactive educational media [15]. Wang (2014) showed that computer-based education models are significantly effective in facilitating students’ learning and success. Niagua et al.’s (2012) showed that computer games affect academic achievement [7]. The results of the study by Bazrafshan et al. (2014) indicate that the use of educational media has been effective in improving learning [16]. Ebtehaj (2012) showed that there is a significant difference between the Intervention and control groups in the functions of selective attention, problem solving and reasoning, and academic performance [17].

Research findings by Malacois (2018) suggest that educational applications, despite their dramatic effects on learning and cognitive skills, can have adverse effects such as over-dependence on these types of games [18]. Research findings by Joan et al. (2017) also indicate that computer games have an impact on improving student learning [12].

The findings of the present study appear to support Bandura’s (1989) theory, which states that through effort, persistence, and perseverance, one’s ability to influence one’s future skills and performance is influenced by the learner’s active role In his cognitive skills including problem solving and attention as well as academic achievement. In fact, evaluations of students’ abilities while being active rather than passive enhance academic performance and acquire skills such as problem solving and attention [7].

It should be noted that, despite the great amount of research on computer-based educational advancement there is still some ambiguity in identifying the effectiveness of game apps on cognitive skills and academic achievement. Therefore, it is not easy to identify the factors that influence cognitive skills and academic achievement. The Hana game app has a fun and educational process. The child is playing while strengthening his or her cognitive skills. After the child goes through the play, the Hana game app gives an initial report to the parents. This report reflects on the child’s cognitive status, and identifies the child’s cognitive strength and the characteristics that need improvement and reinforcement. After the first report is submitted, families will find out about their child’s cognitive status. Whether this app has an impact on students’ cognitive and academic skills, requires a careful and thorough consideration. Therefore, the main question in this study will be whether the Hana game app affects cognitive (problem solving, attention) and academic (language and mathematical) achievement in first grade elementary students.

Research Method

The present study is a quasi-experimental study. The statistical population consists of all first grade elementary school students in district 3 of Tehran. The statistical sample of the study was 30 students (15 control and 15 Intervention) who were selected from a first grade girls elementary school through simple random sampling and the students were randomly assigned into two groups: Intervention and control. A researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 31 items was used to assess cognitive problem-solving skills and attention. The first 21 questions are related to problem solving and the second 10 are related to attention skills using theoretical literature and existing research backgrounds. The responsiveness scale of this tool is based on a five-point Likert scale from very high to very low.

This questionnaire was completed and administered by the teacher. Before the study, content and face validity of the questionnaire was reviewed and approved by several psychology and education professors to validate the questions for each hypothesis and fix drawbacks and ambiguities by the corrective suggestions they provided. In fact, face validity refers to the extent to which a test’s questions are similar in appearance to the subject they are designed to measure.

To obtain the reliability coefficient of this method, Cronbach’s alpha method is used and the reliability coefficient is 0.82 for the problem solving questions and 0.80 for the attention questions, which are acceptable. In order to measure language and mathematical academic achievement, two four-choice Persian and mathematics tests, each containing 20 items, were used. The reliability coefficient was 0.78 for Persian and 0.83 for mathematics, which are acceptable.

Regarding field data collection after obtaining permission from the General Department of Education of Tehran District 3 to implement the intervention plan and determine the intervention and control group, firstly problem solving and attention test as well as academic achievement (Persian and mathematics) for first grade students of The Kimia Saadat elementary school was performed in two groups.

Then, after a one-week interval, 12 sessions of Hannah application were administered to the intervention group, which lasted three sessions per week and each session lasted 45 minutes and a total of 4 weeks. It should be noted that the control group did not receive any training-based app during this time. Questionnaires were then administered to both intervention and control groups.

The analysis of this study was performed at two levels of descriptive and inferential. In the descriptive level, mean and standard deviation, and in inferential level, multivariate analysis of covariance was used.

Findings

Descriptive findings

Table 1. Descriptive findings

Check demographic information

Variables

Abundance

percent

Age

6 years

23 76.66

7 years

7

23.33

Total

30

100

Gender

Girl

30

100

Total

30

100

Grade

First grade

30

100

Total

30

100

Mean and standard deviation

Variables

Control M(SD)

Intervention M(SD)

Pre-test

Problem solving

39.93 (9.98) 36.16 (9.11)

Attention

25.03 (6.65) 30.46 (7.02)

Linguistics

18.03 (4.99)

18.10 (5.24)

Mathematics

18.51 (5.16)

18.48 (5.79)

Post-test

Problem solving

39.86 (5.12)

75.70 (19.51)

Attention

25.06 (6.34)

46.50 (10.44)

Linguistics

18.68 (5.35)

19.16 (6.81)

Mathematics

18.17 (5.14)

19.53 (6.14)

 

Inferential Findings:

Results of the analysis will be discussed separately for each item. For testing hypotheses that compare before-after Intervention and control groups, analysis of covariance can be used. Analysis of covariance as a statistical method is a combination of variance decomposition and regression. First, differences between data in the pre-test stage are calculated and adjusted with regression to account for the variability of variables that are not of primary interest (covariates). Then analysis of covariance is performed on the adjusted data. In this research covariate variables are of the pre-test type. First pre-test covariate effects on post-test results are eliminated, then multi-variable analysis of covariance is performed.

First, the assumptions of the analysis of covariance method will be checked, and only if the assumption are correct we are allowed to use this method. Therefore, the assumptions will be discussed.

First assumption: Normality of the distributions

The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is provided in order to discuss the normality of distribution. K-S test results show that data is collected in a trustable level (P≤0.05) and follows the Normal distribution in all variables, and normality of distribution or parametric data collection is achieved.

Second assumption: variance homogeneity

Variance homogeneity is calculated by Levene’s significance test, and the results of this test is used as an input for analysis of variance and covariance. As shown by the results, variance homogeneity assumption is correct in our research and all variables of this research are homogenous in variance.

Third assumption: linearity assumption

Scatter plot between dependent variables and correlation coefficients show parallel slopes for for dependent variables in both groups. Therefore, the assumption of linearity seems to be correct in this research.

Fourth assumption: Homogeneity of variance-covariance matrix

Box test results for testing the assumption of homogeneity of the variance-covariance matrix is shown in Table 4.

Lack of significance of the M BOX statistic (p≤0.762, S M = 7.53, BOX) shows that the H0 assumption (heterogeneity of variance) is incorrect and the variance-covariance matrix is homogenous. To determine the significance of the effect of the group on the dependent variables, the Wilks-Lambda test was used as the most common multivariate statistical index, the results of which are reported in Table 5.

The results of the Lambda-Wilks test indicates that there is a significant difference between the two groups in at least one of the dependent variables.

Research Hypothesis:

The research hypothesis will be discussed below. Since the difference between the Intervention and control groups in terms of cognitive skills (problem solving and attention) and academic achievement (language and mathematical) is generally calculated using a multivariate analysis of covariance, the hypotheses are discussed and interpreted here in one place.

Since multivariate analysis of covariance makes it possible to examine all dependent variables simultaneously, thereby increases the ability of the F-test for the main effects and interactions. It should be noted that in order to eliminate the effect of pre-tests (as confounding auxiliary variables) on the dependent variables, their value was subtracted from the post-tests data to directly compare the effect of independent variables on the dependent variables through multivariate covariance analysis without the interference of the intrusive variables.

Hana Game application affects cognitive skills (problem solving and attention) and academic achievement (lingual and mathematical).

After examining the assumptions, analysis of covariance on the dependent variables cognitive skill (problem solving) and academic achievement (lingual and mathematical) was administered. The independent variable were test and control group. The results are shown in table 2.

Table 2. Multivariable analysis of covariance on the Hana game application effects on cognitive problem solving skill  and academic achievement lingual and mathematical.

source

Dependent variable

F

P

Square ITA

Corrected model

Problem solving

4.734 0.032

0.141

Attention

6.961 0.021

0.298

Academic achievement lingual

1.187 0.010

0.365

Academic achievement mathematical

21.873 0.000

0.456

group

Problem solving

4.734 0.032

0.141

Attention

6.961 0.021

0.298

Academic achievement lingual

7.187 0.010

0.365

Academic achievement mathematical

21.873 0.000

0.456

Error

Problem solving

Attention

Academic achievement lingual

Academic achievement mathematical

total

Problem solving

Attention

Academic achievement lingual

Academic achievement mathematical

 

Multivariate analysis of variance for effects of group on dependent variables is shown in Table 2.

The difference between the dependent variable problem-solving is significant between the two Intervention and control groups (f = 3.734, p = 0.032 and ITA squared is equal to 0.141). In other words, Hana game application influenced the problem solving cognitive skill of the first grade students and the increase of scores in the Intervention group is significant.

The difference between the dependent variable attention is significant between the two Intervention and control groups (f = 6.961, p = 0.021 and ITA squared is equal to 0.298). In other words, the Hannah game application affected the cognitive skill attention of the first grade students and the increase in attention scores in the Intervention group is significant.

The difference between the dependent variable of language academic achievement is significant between the Intervention and control groups (f = 7.187, p = 0.01 and ITA squared equal to 0.365). In other words, the Hannah game application affected the language academic achievement of the first grade students and the increase of the language scores in the Intervention group is significant.

There was a significant difference between the Intervention and control groups on the mathematical academic achievement variable (f value is 21.873, p is 0.000 and ITA squared is 0.456, respectively). In other words, the Hannah game application has influenced math education in elementary school students. All the math scores in the Intervention group were significantly higher than the control group.

Discussion and conclusion

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Hannah Game application on cognitive (problem solving, attention) and academic achievement (lingual and mathematical) in first grade elementary students. Based on the findings of the present study, the Hana game app had a positive effect on both cognitive (problem solving, attention) and academic achievement (lingual and mathematical).

The findings of the present study are partly in line with the findings of Bazrafshan et al. (2014) and Ebtajaj (2012) Niagua et al. (2012), Malacuiz (2018) and Joan (2017) that computer-based educational games and Applications affect problem solving and attention as well as academic achievement [16, 17, 7, 12 and 18]. In explaining the findings, it should be noted that cognitive skills such as problem solving and attention help us to monitor our progress while learning.

According to Bandura’s (1989) theory, it can be stated that one can play a significant role through effort, perseverance, and perseverance in one’s future skills and performance and through activity in one’s cognitive skills such as Problem solving and attention as well as academic achievement.

In fact, evaluations that students have of their abilities while being active rather than passive will enhance academic performance and acquire skills such as problem solving and attention.

Training in active ways, utilizing educational concepts are among the best ways to teach cognitive skills such as problem solving and attention to children and ultimately increase problem solving and attention. Educators who use modern methods such as the Hannah Game app in education are aware that many children do not initially have the ability to collaborate and engage in formal school activities, and thus use the game as an app and use the app. The game focuses on modern educational methods and out of the traditional ways of teaching children, such as lectures.

Kid’s game is a serious thing that happens in him/her mind. That’s why it’s important to keep going, not the game itself or the outcome. The child wants to play and does not think about the result. Basically the game is the activity that matters, not the outcome, and this is the main character of the game. Therefore, when students in the formal classroom use game-based methods, especially by using the app, this can make them more motivated in subjects such as linguistics and mathematics. And on the other hand, it automatically adds to cognitive skills such as problem solving and attention.

It can be said that using the Hana game app will make learning more enjoyable for students, make them more comprehensible and students will be more interested in math and linguistic lessons and hence in this lesson. And also more will be gained in problem-solving and attention skills.

Therefore, it is necessary to use different kinds of application based games in the educational system of the country and to use them as educational aids at this point in time, because children achieve Mental concepts during games, especially educational games. They gain access to new skills and acquire more and better skills. Playing helps the child to understand, control, and differentiate between the world in which he or she lives, and to distinguish between reality and imagination.

If teaching and presentation of content is in many different ways, it works better. It would better to set one of these teaching methods apart from the teacher’s usual classroom instruction so that students understand, manipulate, and repeat the concepts and principles they want to learn.

Finally, based on the findings of the present study, practical suggestions are made to educational experts and officials:

– According to the results of this study, it is necessary to use educational application games in elementary school. Therefore, teachers need to find a better place in the daily lesson plan for them.

– Given the students’ general acceptance of application games, the creation and production of new games and the development of challenging learning topics in the form of educational games is increasingly felt.

– Families’ awareness of the status of educational application games and the disclosure of their positive aspects through the media, schools and so on.

– Consider a national investment in the design and production of educational application games that are supervised by social experts, counselors, psychologists, and education professionals based on goals such as enhancing academic performance and improving student problem-solving cognitive skills.

 

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